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With the goal of Nature Conservation 20 protected areas are established in Nepal. They cover landscapes and ecosystem from Himalayas and high mountain watershed to flood plains of Terai with a low representation in mid mountain area. It is assumed that 80 out of 118 ecosystems of Nepal are covered by the Protected Areas.
Nepal has been utilizing its own resources, local community participation and related stakeholders for management and conservation of Protected Areas. While managing the conservation activity in this way, DNPWC also has focus on programs that provide support for the development of local community. Tourism has also been an integral part of Protected Areas and efforts has been made for its development too.
Despite of cumulative efforts of Government of Nepal, local community and NGO's, due to increase in the human population, development activities, protected areas are facing a number of challenges. Encroachment of forest and dependency of local community on the protected areas for grass, wood, grazing and other forest products have been a great challenge. The extensive requirement of forest product from local community and growing human-wildlife conflict sometimes cause conflict among protected areas and local community.
With the implementation of the concept of buffer zone, increasing availability of the forest products to the local community, community development support, conservation education programs, a positive environment has been created. 30% to 50% of the income of Protected Area can be allocated and is utilized for development of bio-diversity through the community people and to increase their livelihood. This has been helpful to develop relation among protected area and local people, and also reduce the human pressure in protected areas.