Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus arnee), known as Arna in Nepali belongs to family Bovidae of order Aritodactyla. Globally this species is native to Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Myanmar, Thailand and Nepal. In Nepal this species occurs in a single, isolated location (Less than 175 km2) in south-east lowland within the protected area of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve. The global population of wild water buffalo is estimated to be less than 4000 individuals. According to the Annual Report of DNPWC (2019), its population is 441. This species faces the problem of genetic degradation due to cross-breeding with domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Similarly, constant threat of being extinct from Nepal, in case of natural calamities and pandemic also exist. Considering these facts, DNPWC has started translocation of this species to Chitwan NP in 2017. Globally and nationally it is listed as Endangered in IUCN Red List category. The legal status of this species in Nepal is Protected (Appendix I) by National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973. While, CITES has listed wild water buffalo in Appendix III species.
Jnawali, S. R., Baral, H. S., Lee, S., Acharya, K. P., Upadhyay, G. P., Pandey, M., ... & Khatiwada, A. P. (2011). The Status of Nepal's Mammals: The National Red List Series-IUCN.